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Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition Test Bank


Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition Test Bank


Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach 5th Edition Test Bank


Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


1. What is the most notable contribution of Clarence Hinckes?

a. He argued that mental illness is treatable with a combination of drugs and individualized attention.
b. He argued that mental illness was incurable but more humane institutions were needed to care for the mentally ill.
c. He argued that mental illness was caused by brain pathology and, therefore, was incurable and that therapy should consist of learning to cope with symptoms.
d. He argued that mental illness was treatable, which was contrary to the prevailing view at the time.


2. Who is the concept of a “hierarchy of needs” most closely associated with?

a. Carl Rogers
b. Anna Freud
c. Abraham Maslow
d. Carl Jung


3. The concept of hysteria traditionally meant physical symptoms for which no organic pathology could be found. Which of the following terms is now used to refer to this concept?

a. neurosis
b. anxiety disorders
c. delusions
d. somatic symptom disorders


4. Trent is in psychoanalysis and states to his therapist that he thinks that his wife is considering having an affair with her co-worker. Later on in the session, Trent admits that he is tempted to start an affair with his own co-worker. What defence mechanism was Trent displaying when he accused his wife of thinking about being unfaithful?

a. sublimation
b. projection
c. displacement
d. denial


5. According to psychoanalytic theory, what is the role of the ego?

a. to counteract the aggressive and sexual drives of the id
b. to maximize pleasure and reduce tension
c. to mediate conflict between the id and the superego
d. to increase self-esteem and a strong sense of identity


6. What was Erikson’s greatest contribution to psychoanalytical theorizing?

a. his idea that development occurs across the life span
b. his idea that sexual arousal and interest occur during the latency stage
c. his idea that societal factors influence our behaviour
d. his idea that intrapsychic conflicts are resolved in early childhood


7. According to psychoanalytic theory, the id operates according to the pleasure principle. What does that mean?

a. It utilizes secondary-process thinking.
b. It thinks in an unemotional, logical, and rational manner.
c. It is sexual, aggressive, selfish, and envious.
d. It adheres to social rules and regulations.


8. After graduation, two of your friends express an interest in psychology careers. Carl wants to work with relatively healthy individuals who are experiencing adjustment or vocational difficulties. Anna wishes to focus on the more severe psychological disorders and conduct research into their causes. Because you are studying abnormal psychology, they ask you for career advice. What do you tell them?

a. Carl should study psychology at the graduate level, and Anna should apply to medical school.
b. Carl should study clinical psychology at the graduate level, and Anna should study counselling psychology at the graduate level.
c. Both of them should apply to medical school.
d. Anna should study clinical psychology at the graduate level, and Carl should study counselling psychology at the graduate level.


9. In the late 1800s, there was an emphasis on biological causes of mental disorders, which ironically reduced interest in treatments for mental patients. Why did this happen?

a. because it was thought that hospital staff were not adequately trained to administer new treatments
b. because it was thought that patients would improve more rapidly if they were not hospitalized
c. because it was thought that mental illness due to brain pathology was incurable
d. because it was thought that physicians should devote more time to the physically ill


10. In 1895, how did neurologist Josef Breuer treat Anna O.’s hysterical symptoms?

a. using mesmerism
b. using hydrotherapy
c. using the placebo effect
d. using hypnosis


11. Which of the following 18th century terms for psychiatric conditions is related to an explanation for mental illness?

a. lunatic
b. mental defective
c. maniac
d. idiot


12. You are in a mall when a young child begins to scream and shout because his parents will not buy him the latest toy. What would B.F. Skinner most likely say about the child’s behaviour?

a. It is an expression of repressed Oedipal anger toward his father and it will diminish naturally as he gets older.
b. It is a classically conditioned response to being in the mall.
c. It would be most effectively altered over the long term by simply ignoring it.
d. It would be most effectively altered over the long term by scolding him and positively reinforcing more appropriate behaviour.


13. How does Gestalt therapy differ from psychoanalytic therapy?

a. In Gestalt therapy, there is no delving into past experiences.
b. In Gestalt therapy, the critical element is the therapist’s unconditional positive regard for the patient.
c. In Gestalt therapy, there is little emphasis on the here and now.
d. In Gestalt therapy, there is little or no training required for therapists.


14. If a psychological disorder is said to have an acute onset, how did the symptoms develop?

a. atypically
b. suddenly
c. gradually
d. sporadically


15. Which of the following Greek philosophers suggested that maladaptive behaviour was rooted in social and cultural factors?

a. Galen
b. Hippocrates
c. Plato
d. Aristotle


16. Popular musician Lady Gaga has performed with blood spurting out of her clothes. Why might having blood spurt from her clothes be considered abnormal?

a. because her behaviour demonstrates a sense of subjective discomfort
b. because she has an inability to distinguish right from wrong
c. because it is a deviation from the what is typical in her society
d. because she shows an inability to function effectively


17. Anton Mesmer, an early 18th-century physician, purported to cure patients by unblocking the flow of a bodily fluid he called “animal magnetism.” Benjamin Franklin’s double-blind experiment indicated that any effectiveness of Mesmer’s methods was actually due to which of the following?

a. undetectable magnetic fields
b. chemically induced humoral balance
c. the power of suggestion
d. mental telepathy


18. Psychological disorders can be described as following a typical course or individual pattern. Disorders that tend to last a long time follow one type of course, whereas disorders that show a discontinuous, repetitive pattern follow another type of course. What are these courses, respectively?

a. chronic; episodic
b. chronic; time-limited
c. pervasive; time-limited
d. insidious; recurrent


19. According to object relations theory, what does the concept of “introjection” refer to?

a. a strong drive toward self-actualization and self-assessment
b. the process of internalizing the images, memories, or values of an important person in one’s life
c. the ability to adapt successfully to one’s environment
d. projecting one’s own unacceptable feelings onto another individual or object


20. Why is a patient’s age important information in the clinical description?

a. because young children do not experience true psychological disorders
b. because older adults are reluctant to report psychological symptoms
c. because children are not reliable sources of information about symptoms
d. because disorders occurring in childhood may be expressed differently at older ages


21. In most Western societies, what happens when a person enters a trance state and believes he or she is possessed?

a. The person is believed to be suffering from a psychotic disorder.
b. The person is diagnosed with a dissociative disorder.
c. The person may be viewed as having a psychological disorder.
d. The person can be cured with antipsychotic medication.


22. Why are hysterical disorders no longer considered to be caused by a “wandering” uterus?

a. because men also suffer from hysterical disorders
b. because of greater knowledge of physiology
c. because the theory is considered insulting to women
d. because when the uterus is removed, symptoms tend to remain


23. William lived in the 19th century and had the cognitive disorder known as “general paresis.”  Based on this information, what other disease do you know William suffered from?

a. epilepsy
b. hysteria
c. malaria
d. syphilis


24. In the 14th century, what did the physician who first treated France’s King Charles VI suggest as a cure?

a. reducing his responsibilities
b. bloodletting
c. exorcism
d. sexual abstinence


25. Statistical data are relevant to researchers. For example, one major epidemiological study found that about 7.8 percent of people in North America have had a mood disorder at some point in their lives and 3.7 percent have experienced a mood disorder over the past year. What do the 7.8 percent and 3.7 percent statistics refer to, respectively?

a. incidence; prevalence
b. incidence; recurrence
c. proportion; prevalence
d. prevalence; incidence


26. John Grey was an important figure in 19th-century psychiatry in the United States. What did he believe was always the cause of mental illness?

a. physical causes
b. social/environmental influences
c. psychological factors
d. unknown influences


27. What did Jean Charcot find when he used a variation of Mesmer’s?

a. These methods were effective in treating a number of psychological disorders.
b. These methods were no more effective than previous methods he had used.
c. Patients were better able to understand the link between their emotional problems and their psychological disorder.
d. The symptoms of some patients actually worsened.


28. According to psychoanalytic theory, what do the conflicts between the id and the superego often lead to?

a. anxiety
b. anger
c. violent behaviour
d. depression


29. During more superstitious times, which of the following was thought to be the cause of abnormal behaviour?

a. a demonic possession
b. black bile
c. homosexuality
d. punishment of the illiterate


30. Which of the following is associated with the humanistic theories of Carl Rogers?

a. hierarchy of needs
b. dream analysis
c. moral hygiene
d. client-centred therapy


31. According to Hippocrates’ humoral theory, which of the following best characterizes the choleric personality?

a. hot tempered
b. kind
c. lacking affect
d. easygoing


32. You are listening to old musical tunes, including “Melancholy Baby.” Your friends are impressed when you tell them that “melancholic,” referring to a depressive personality, derives from the Greek term melancholer. What does this term mean?

a. yellow bile
b. phlegm
c. blood
d. black bile


33. Suppose you know someone lived sometime between 1100 AD and 1900 AD but you don’t know the exact years and you had to place a bet on which treatment for a psychological disorder they were most likely to have had. Which treatment would you bet on?

a. induced seizures
b. bloodletting
c. drilling through the skull
d. exorcism


34. In contrast to Freud, how did Jung and Adler view human nature?

a. They believed that cognitive and personality factors shape human potential.
b. They believed that humans are born with a strong drive toward self-actualization.
c. They believed that the ego is much stronger than Freud postulated.
d. They believed that humans are shaped through learning from their environment.


35. You have just read a newspaper article about a savage rape and murder. You wonder how anyone could commit such a horrible crime. Then you recall from your study of Freudian theory that anyone could be a killer or rapist if certain impulses are not well controlled. Which of the following best describes these impulses?

a. intrapsychic forces
b. a libidinous desire
c. the drive of the id
d. primitive forces


36. In the 14th and 15th centuries, in addition to attributing mental illness to the supernatural, some people suggested that mental illness was caused by what other factor?

a. an unhealthy lifestyle
b. head injuries
c. stress
d. genes


37. A dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell because of its association with the presentation of food. Later, when exposed to the bell without food for a long period, the dog eventually stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. What is this phenomenon known as?

a. extinction
b. response fading
c. conditioned forgetting
d. stimulus fading


38. In Freudian theory, the terms “libido” and “thanatos” represent two basic but opposing drives. What are they?

a. life and death
b. pleasure and pain
c. sex and celibacy
d. good and evil


39. Why was Emil Kraeplin’s lasting contribution to modern psychiatry in the area of diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders, rather than that of treatment?

a. because of his discomfort with actually working with patients
b. because of his conviction that better diagnosis was necessary for more effective treatment
c. because of his belief that these disorders were due to brain pathology
d. because of his belief in the influence of the social environment in mental illness


40. Whose work lead to a decline in moral therapy?

a. Grey
b. Dix
c. Hinckes
d. Freud


41. A four-year-old girl sucks her thumb, a teenager binges on food, and an adult woman bites her fingernails. According to the Freudian theory of psychosexual development, what underlies all of these behaviours?

a. repression of aggressive impulses
b. a fixation at the oral stage of psychosexual development
c. a trauma during the toilet-training phase
d. denial of unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or wishes


42. In many parts of the world during the 1970s, what would an individual suffering from an anxiety disorder most likely have been prescribed?

a. bromides
b. neuroleptics
c. benzodiazepines
d. electroconvulsive therapy


43. According to Freudian theory, anxiety is a signal for the ego to marshal its mechanisms of defence. This is a function of which of the following?

a. reality-based actions
b. conscious efforts to maintain control
c. unconscious protective processes
d. primitive emotional responses


44. Why is Watson and Rayner’s experiment in which they induced a fear of white, furry objects in Little Albert famous?

a. It was the first real-life demonstration of operant conditioning.
b. It was the first recorded lawsuit made against the psychology profession for unethical behaviour.
c. It was the first recorded example of inducing fear of an object in a laboratory setting.
d. It proved the law of effect.


45. Which of the following is one of the three ways a psychotherapist can function as a scientist-practitioner?

a. writing textbooks
b. evaluating clinical practice
c. prescribing medications
d. teaching students


46. When 20-year-old Larry was first identified as suffering from schizophrenia, his family wanted to know how the disorder would progress and how it would affect him in the future. In medical terms, what did the family want to know?

a. Larry’s psychosocial profile
b. Larry’s pathology
c. Larry’s diagnosis
d. Larry’s prognosis


47. What movement did Dorothea Dix start?

a. the mental hygiene movement
b. the moral movement
c. the humane therapy movement
d. the deinstitutionalization movement


48. In ancient Greece, a woman suffering from hysteria might be told that her condition could be cured by which of the following?

a. induced seizures
b. bloodletting
c. marriage
d. rest and relaxation


49. The term psychotherapist is used to describe

a. clinical psychologists and psychiatrists only.
b. people who provide therapy but who do not hold medical degrees.
c. people who followed in the traditions of Sigmund Freud.
d. anyone who is trained to treat psychopathological disorders.


50. How does psychodynamic psychotherapy differ from classical (Freudian) psychoanalysis?

a. It emphasizes the goal of personality reconstruction.
b. It focuses more on social and interpersonal issues.
c. It considers past experiences important.
d. It requires a long-term commitment on the part of the person being analyzed.


51. A classmate in your psychology course is worried about the selfish and sometimes dangerous drives of the id. Which of the following should you say to your classmate to address this fear?

a. Because id impulses are usually part of conscious awareness, we can learn to control them.
b. Id fantasies never become part of conscious awareness, so we never act on them.
c. Each of us develops an ego to help us behave more realistically.
d. The selfish drives of the id are transformed to positive emotional expressions.


52. Ron has just been diagnosed with schizophrenia and hospitalized. What would Thomas Szasz MOST likely argue?

a. Ron should not be hospitalized because doing so will only make his symptoms worse.
b. Ron’s behaviour does not represent an illness like diabetes, and “schizophrenia” is merely a label applied on the basis of highly subjective judgments.
c. Ron’s schizophrenia is a serious illness that is best treated with a combination of drugs and family therapy.
d. Ron should be assessed further because mistakes in diagnosis are made frequently.


53. Jack and Kelly have been dating for six months. Kelly is not interested in continuing their relationship. She calls Jack and informs him that although she cares about him, she must end their relationship. Jack laughs and says, “Funny joke.” Kelly states, “This is not a joke; I am serious.” Jack then says, “I’ll pick you up in an hour for dinner.” Which defence mechanism does this example illustrate?

a. displacement
b. projection
c. denial
d. repression


54. Why was electroconvulsive therapy originally used as a therapy for schizophrenia?

a. because it was (mistakenly) observed that schizophrenia was rarely found in people with epilepsy
b. because it was (mistakenly) observed that it could reduce brain seizures, providing a cure
c. because it was (mistakenly) observed to induce convulsions and stimulated appetite in psychotic patients
d. because it was (mistakenly) observed to alleviate the depression that often accompanies schizophrenia


55. After receiving the results of four different sets of tests, Mary’s doctor tells her that she has cancer. Mary states, “This can’t be true; I’m going to get a second opinion.” Which defence mechanism does this example illustrate?

a. displacement
b. denial
c. projection
d. repression


56. In the middle of the 20th century, which of the following were some of the first effective drugs for psychological disorders?

a. benzodiazepines to treat depression
b. bromides and opium for sedation
c. insulin and neuroleptics for sedation
d. neuroleptics for psychotic symptoms


57. According to Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, individuals will be unable to achieve high levels of self-actualization and self-esteem unless which of the following has taken place?

a. unless they have been raised with unconditional positive regard from primary caregivers
b. unless they have first met more basic human requirements such as food, sex, and friendship
c. unless they have developed sufficient ego strength
d. unless they have gratified their basic needs and satisfied their drive for physical pleasure through the five psychosexual stages of development


58. Bloodletting, often through the use of leeches, was a treatment devised centuries ago. What was this treatment used for?

a. to reduce excessive blood in the brain
b. to correct a chemical imbalance in the brain
c. to reduce the negative effects of stress
d. to restore the balance of humors


59. What is the formal definition of psychopathology?

a. the medications used to treat some psychological disorders
b. the criteria used to define psychological disorders
c. the psychological therapies used to treat psychological disorders
d. the scientific study of psychological disorders


60. The Oedipus complex is the psychosexual conflict occurring during the phallic stage of development in boys. How is this complex characterized?

a. by love for the mother and feelings of anger and envy toward the father
b. by a repressed need for oral gratification
c. by a love for the father and feelings of repulsion toward the mother
d. by a repressed need for genital self-stimulation


61. In 14th- and 15th-century Europe, to what was inexplicable behaviour attributed?

a. evil
b. stupidity
c. humors
d. astrology


62. Sarah underwent chemotherapy treatment for cancer. She now reports experiencing mild nausea when she drives by the hospital and severe nausea when she enters the hospital where her chemotherapy was administered. What phenomenon best explains these reactions to stimuli she associates with her chemotherapy?

a. reconditioning
b. introspection
c. operant conditioning
d. stimulus generalization


63. The discovery of certain tranquilizers made it possible to control psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions. What kind of drugs were these tranquilizers?

a. neuroleptics
b. bromides
c. benzodiazepines
d. opiates


64. As compared to her father, Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud (1895–1982) focused her work on the way our behaviour is influenced. Which of the following did she write?

a. Id and the Mechanisms of Defense
b. Our Neurosis and the Mechanisms of Defense
c. Our Self-actualization and the Mechanisms of Defense
d. Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense


65. In Freud’s iceberg analogy of the psyche, which two elements can operate within the conscious mind?

a. the ego and the id
b. the id and the preconscious
c. the preconscious and the superego
d. the superego and the ego


66. In classical psychoanalysis, why is the process whereby the therapist interprets a patient’s dreams often difficult?

a. because the patient may resist uncovering repressed material and deny the interpretation
b. because patients often forget their dreams
c. because the patient may relate to the therapist much as he or she did toward a parent figure
d. because the therapist may wish not to upset the patient with a negative interpretation


67. Louie was barking like a dog and walking on his hands and knees. A professional thought the cause of Louie’s problem was an excess of a particular neurotransmitter, and prescribed a drug to treat him. What kind of professional was this most likely?

a. a clinical psychologist
b. a social worker
c. a psychiatric social worker
d. a psychiatrist


68. What is the relationship between a presenting problem and a clinical description?

a. Obtaining the patient’s clinical description is the first step in determining what the patient’s presenting problem is.
b. Describing the patient’s presenting problem is the first step in determining the patient’s clinical description.
c. The presenting problem refers to the current status of a distressed individual; the clinical description refers to the treatment plan.
d. The presenting problem refers to symptoms that last only a short time, whereas the clinical description refers to symptoms that are chronic.


69. Jason has been having a lot of difficulty because of his irrational fears. His doctor advises Jason to participate in an anxiety-reduction procedure based on the work of Joseph Wolpe. What is this procedure?

a. aversive conditioning
b. person-centred therapy
c. systematic desensitization
d. mesmerism


70. What does Wolpe’s technique of systematic desensitization involve?

a. reinforcing successive approximations to a final behaviour or set of behaviours
b. gradually introducing the feared objects or situations so that fear can be extinguished
c. gradually reinforcing fearless behaviour and punishing fear responses
d. reinforcing an incompatible response to a feared situation


71. In the psychosocial approach called “moral therapy,” what does the term “moral” mean?

a. emotional
b. ethical
c. religious
d. story


72. What are two recent developments that have contributed to a multidimensional, integrative approach to psychopathology?

a. the introduction of highly specialized drugs and more sophisticated training for mental health workers
b. increasingly sophisticated medical technology and the realization that no one influence on behaviour ever occurs in isolation
c. deinstitutionalization and the growth of humanistic therapies
d. an increase in public mental health education and less reliance on drugs to control abnormal behaviour


73. Which of the following is a characteristic of how defence mechanisms affect coping styles?

a. They are dependent upon the age of the person and how they are used.
b. They can be either adaptive or maladaptive.
c. They are self-defeating.
d. They are adaptive.


74. In classical psychoanalysis, what does the concept of “transference” refer to?

a. the process whereby the patient falsely attributes his or her own unacceptable feelings or thoughts to the therapist
b. the process whereby the therapist projects some of his or her own personal feelings onto the patient
c. the process whereby the patient relates to the therapist as he or she would toward a parent figure
d. the process whereby the patient directs potentially maladaptive impulses to socially acceptable behaviour


75. Alonso believes that Hedwig’s behaviour disturbance is due to an excess of black bile. Whose ideas about psychiatry does Alonso’s belief best align with?

a. Blueler
b. Aristotle
c. Newton
d. Hippocrates


76. Who was the first theorist to argue that genetics were related to abnormal functioning?

a. Hippocrates
b. Galen
c. Freud
d. Grey


77. Why are operant conditioning techniques being applied in Canadian hospital settings?

a. to increase patients’ insight into their fears and wishes
b. to reduce psychiatric patients’ undesirable behaviour and increase their desirable behaviour
c. to reduce patients’ fear of surgery
d. to increase nursing staff’s empathy


78. How do most mental health professionals view psychoanalysis as a treatment technique?

a. It has been proven effective.
b. It has been subject to careful measurement criteria.
c. It is basically unscientific.
d. It is noted for consistency in analytic interpretation.


79. According to Anna Freud’s ego psychology, when does abnormal behaviour develop?

a. when the ego does not develop normally due to psychosexual conflicts at the oral stage of development
b. when the ego is deficient in regulating such functions as delaying and controlling impulses
c. when there are social and psychological barriers to achieving self-actualization
d. when introjected objects become an integrated part of the ego


80. When using the psychological disorder criteria, when would an individual be assessed as having a cognitive dysfunction?

a. when his or her thought processes are totally out of touch with reality
b. when he or she is extremely distressed
c. when his or her behaviour violates social norms
d. when he or she avoids interactions with other people


81. Frank drinks three bottles of wine each day and believes he would be fine if people would just “mind their own business.” Which criterion for abnormality is absent from this scenario?

a. objective harm to others
b. personal distress
c. maladaptiveness
d. qualitative uniqueness


82. Realizing patients are often unaware of material previously recalled under hypnosis, Charcot, Breuer, and Freud hypothesized the existence of a concept considered one of the most important developments in the history of psychopathology. What was that concept?

a. psychosis
b. the unconscious mind
c. catharsis
d. repression


83. Mrs. Babcock received a very poor rating from her supervisor, who had been constantly criticizing her in front of her co-workers. When she got home, her children ran up to greet her, all talking at once. She responded by yelling, “Leave me alone! Can’t you see I’m tired?” According to psychoanalytic theory, which defence mechanism does this situation illustrate?

a. projection
b. displacement
c. repression
d. rationalization


84. Which of the following is an example of a healthy defence mechanism?

a. sublimation
b. projection
c. denial
d. repression


85. According to psychoanalytic theory, what process does a person develop early in life to ensure that they can adapt to the demands of the real world while still finding ways to meeting their basic needs?

a. her id
b. her conscience
c. her superego
d. her ego


86. In which defence mechanism does an individual substitute behaviour, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones?

a. displacement
b. repression
c. rationalization
d. reaction formation


87. In psychoanalytic psychotherapy, which of the following is most important for patients?

a. to strive to reach their full potential
b. to remain emotionally detached from the analyst
c. to find an effective medication
d. to describe the content of their dreams to the analyst


88. Which of the following was common in asylums in the mid-18th century?

a. physical restraints and seclusion
b. individual attention from the hospital staff
c. lectures on interesting subjects for hospitalized patients
d. opportunities for normal social interaction


89. What did Freud and Breuer discover about the process known as “catharsis”?

a. They discovered that it reduces psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
b. They discovered that it occurs beyond the conscious awareness of the patient.
c. They discovered that it leads to insight.
d. They discovered that the power of suggestion subconsciously changed behaviour.


90. Induced vomiting was a 17th-century treatment for depression. As described in Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), this could be accomplished by eating what?

a. tobacco
b. ice
c. raw meat
d. onions


91. What do humanistic therapists regard as the most positive influence in facilitating human growth?

a. therapist interpretations of the patient’s verbalizations
b. self-esteem
c. ego development
d. relationships (including the therapeutic relationship)


92. The Electra complex is the psychosexual conflict that occurs at the phallic stage of development in girls. How is this complex characterized?

a. by latency lust
b. by feelings of anger and envy toward the mother
c. by castration anxiety
d. by a desire to replace the mother and possess the father


93. George, a male college student, began feeling sad and lonely. Although he is still able to go to classes and work at his job, George finds himself feeling down much of the time and he worries about what is happening to him. Which part of the definition of abnormality applies to his situation?

a. personal distress
b. lack of social support
c. impaired functioning
d. violation of societal norms


94. The ego operates according to one principle, and the id operates according to another principle. What are they, respectively?

a. reality; pleasure
b. conscious; unconscious
c. pleasure; aggression
d. reality; aggression


95. You are a psychiatrist in the 1930s who has decided to begin treating your patients diagnosed with schizophrenia with a new treatment known as “electroconvulsive therapy” instead of the traditional “insulin shock therapy.” What is the most likely reason for this decision?

a. You believe that insulin therapy is too expensive.
b. You believe that insulin therapy is too risky.
c. You believe that insulin therapy is not effective.
d. You believe that insulin therapy is unethical.


96. In Medieval Europe, feelings of despair and lethargy were seen as a sin. What was this sin called?

a. gluttony
b. lust
c. sloth
d. greed


97. According to the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, which of the following factors could negatively influence psychological functioning?

a. family stress
b. birth order
c. believing in astrology
d. supernatural forces


98. When did moral therapy work best?

a. when it was used with groups of patients, rather than through individual attention to patients
b. when the number of patients in an institution was 200 or fewer
c. when it was used in populations of immigrants and the poor
d. when it was supplemented by the use of restraint and seclusion


99. Based on Hippocrates’ humoral theory, what type of person does the term “sanguine” describe?

a. humorous
b. pessimistic
c. pale
d. cheerful


100. Which of the following is NOT included as part of Freud’s structure of the mind?

a. psyche
b. superego
c. ego
d. id



101. Discuss the controversy surrounding the use of medical diagnoses in the case of psychological disorders. Explain the position taken by Thomas Szasz.


102. Compare and contrast the three traditional models of abnormal behaviour: supernatural, psychological, and biological. Mention key aspects of the explanations of abnormal behaviour and treatments of the mentally ill associated with each model.


103. Explain the basic assumptions of psychoanalytic theory. Refer to concepts such as anxiety, defence mechanisms, and psychosexual development. Use specific examples to illustrate these concepts.


104. Describe the psychosocial approach to mental disorders called moral therapy. Mention key figures who contributed to or promoted this approach. Discuss whether this approach was effective in improving conditions for the mentally ill. Explain the reasons for the decline of moral therapy.


105. Compare and contrast classical psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Note the criticisms of classical psychoanalysis, and explain why it is more of historical than of current interest.


106. Compare the basic assumptions and techniques of behaviour therapy versus humanistic therapy. Mention significant figures who contributed to each approach and the key concepts associated with those individuals.


107. Discuss the evolution of biological treatments for psychological disorders across the 20th century. Explain the development and use of insulin shock therapy and electroconvulsive therapy in the first part of the century, and describe the major drug therapies developed in the latter half.


108. Describe the educational and professional differences between psychologists and psychiatrists. In Canada, who is permitted to hold him- or herself out to the public as a “psychologist” (e.g., in advertising)?


109. Identify and explain the developments in the 1990s that contributed to a multidimensional, integrative approach to psychopathology. Describe the contributions that cognitive science and neuroscience have made to our expanding knowledge about psychopathology.


110. Discuss the criteria for abnormality and the meanings of psychological dysfunction, personal distress, and atypical or not culturally expected behaviour.


Answer Key

1. d


2. c


3. d


4. b


5. c


6. a


7. c


8. d


9. c


10. d


11. a


12. d


13. a


14. b


15. c


16. c


17. c


18. a


19. b


20. d


21. c


22. b


23. d


24. a


25. d


26. a


27. a


28. a


29. a


30. d


31. a


32. d


33. b


34. b


35. c


36. c


37. a


38. a


39. c


40. b


41. b


42. c


43. c


44. c


45. b


46. d


47. a


48. c


49. d


50. b


51. c


52. b


53. c


54. a


55. b


56. d


57. b


58. d


59. d


60. a


61. a


62. d


63. a


64. d


65. c


66. a


67. d


68. b


69. c


70. b


71. a


72. b


73. b


74. c


75. d


76. a


77. b


78. c


79. b


80. a


81. b


82. b


83. b


84. a


85. d


86. d


87. d


88. a


89. c


90. a


91. d


92. d


93. a


94. a


95. b


96. c


97. a


98. b


99. d


100. a


101. Student responses will vary.


102. Student responses will vary.


103. Student responses will vary.


104. Student responses will vary.


105. Student responses will vary.


106. Student responses will vary.


107. Student responses will vary.


108. Student responses will vary.


109. Student responses will vary.


110. Student responses will vary.




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